Copyright and conditions of use
© D Clark and others 2017. The content of this website is copyright. You may not directly copy or reproduce images or text from the site. You may summarise information from the site pages or use it as background in your own research, provided that you include a proper source attribution or citation, just as you should acknowledge any published source. As an example:
You may link to pages from this website. You may not otherwise copy, reproduce, distribute or re-post any text or images from the site.
Crown Copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Britannic Majesty’s Stationery Office and the Queen’s Printer for Scotland, under the terms and conditions of the Open Government Licence. The 211 Squadron badge is British Crown Copyright/MoD, reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Britannic Majesty’s Stationery Office.
If you have a genuine question specifically about 211 Squadron RAF and its men, email me at and I’ll answer if I can. Emails that don’t directly relate to the Squadron will go unanswered: the Do it yourself, Glossary, Sources and Sites & Links pages may help.
The 211 Squadron website
This website is my personal endeavour, as a son of 211 Squadron Sgt Observer CFR “Nobby” Clark, to put together some record of the Squadron and its men.
The Site summary page is like a map of the site with comments. Use that page, or the pages menu shown top left on every page, or the Site search page, to find your way around the site. The Glossary, Do it yourself, Sources and Sites & Links pages may also be of some interest to readers with or without a Service background.
The website is copied annually by the Australian national web archive PANDORA.
Citing this site
You may summarise information from this site or use it as background in your own research, provided that you include a proper attribution or citation, just as you should for any published source. For example:
Linking to this site
By all means place a link to this site on your own website Links page, such as:
Linking to pages
If you need to link to an individual page, copy that page’s URL as shown in your browser address bar, eg
Archival, persistent links
If needed for archival reference purposes, the PANDORA set of 211 Squadron site copies gives persistent URLs for the whole set, for individual annual copies, or for any individual page in a copy.
The Site updates page records all significant additions, revisions or news of ex-Squadron members, as they arise.
The adding of new pages and other major additions came to an end with the 70th and 75th Anniversary updates of March and April 2016. Small updates may still arise from time to time, for example to mark the doings or passing of Squadron members. Other minor housekeeping updates may be made each year on 31 July.
The website in its current state carries a reasonable balance of material from both World Wars, for aircrew and groundcrew, from the main operational theatres, and of the main aircraft types.
Although it took some years to be able to add much of the chronological account from official sources, transcripts of surviving 211 Squadron World War II era operational records are now complete for each year from 1937 to 1941, for 1943 and for 1946 (if not without loss, error or omission), offering a searchable account of the records of the time. For the missing 1942 record, a partial reconstruction has been compiled from other sources.
For the years 1944 and 1945, the sets of Forms 540, Forms 541 and Appendices are extensive and yet still not without instances of omission or illegibility. Tackling a transcription on this scale, though technically possible, is impractical. In the meantime, digital retrieval at the UK National Archives has at last made available Squadron records readily accessible at reasonable cost, either directly or (for undigitised material) through private research services.
Offers of material
As copies, scans or originals, many wonderful pictures and original documents were offered freely by the boys or their close family over the years. I cannot adequately express my thanks for their generosity, or for the variety and quality of material they put forward, whether to me directly or through Adrian Fryatt, Elizabeth Kaegi or Ian Carter. Though grateful, I must now decline to accept any more material.
The site and its content are solely my responsibility, carefully thought through and checked before posting. Every effort is put into making it accurate, comprehensive and a faithful reflection of available records and contributions, however, there will be blunders. These will be repaired as and when I uncover them.
211 Squadron Survivors Association
Over the years, I’ve enjoyed very cordial relations with a good many ex-members of 211 Squadron and their families, and with their Association. Their interest and assistance contributed greatly to the richness of this account as it stands today.
Like others of its kind, the ranks of the Survivors had thinned over the years since the turn of the new Century. The Association itself passed into inactivity some years ago, as the health of their Secretary Ron McKnight declined.
Born in the Summer of 1923, Ron enlisted in the war-time RAFVR in 1942. Aircraftman Ronald McKnight 1687540 was soon posted to India, with the groundcrew tending the Squadron and its Beaufighters from 1943 to 1945.
In latter years, he and his family suffered the death of his wife Eileen and the early deaths of their son Graham and daughter Diane. Ron himself died on 8 February 2014 at the age of 90, a grandfather and great-grandfather mourned by his surviving son and daughters and their families. His efforts in keeping the Association going for as long as he did were admirable indeed.
Screens and browsers
All pages work without horizontal scrolling at all settings from 1024x768 and upwards. At lower settings (640x480, 800x600) horizontal scrolling is needed. The photographs look best at the 32-bit or True colour setting, quite acceptable at 16-bit High colour, and poor at 256 colours.
All pages are without frames and are free of pop-ups, cookies, animations and sounds. They should work well in any recent browser. For ease of screen reading, the site html sets the browser default font to sans serif (Arial, Helvetica etc) at medium size. For printing, I choose to reset to Times New Roman.
Most current browsers have very simple options to zoom or magnify the page view.
On this site, text highlighted in underlined blue always indicates a live link: to a part of the current page, to another page of the website or to some other website. The cursor changes to a little hand whenever it is over such a link. Simply click on the link to proceed.
In this simplest possible website layout, each page is just one mouse-click away from every other page. The order of material is a sensible compromise between background, chronology, theatre, and individual narrative.
So on this site, the Home page is an active page with useful content that briefly introduces the Squadron, the aim of making such a record, and the navigation menu: the long list of page name links that sits at the top of the left hand column on this and every page. To go from one page to another, just pick a link and click.
The foot of each page carries another simpler set of links: to the Home page, the Site summary, on to the Next or back to the Previous page, and to the Enquiries, Glossary and Site Search pages. To go to the page you last looked at, use your browser’s Back button.
Within-page navigation: Most pages are quite long. Use your keyboard [Home] [End] [Page Up] [Page Down] keys, click-and-drag the scroll bar on the right, or use the mouse scroll-wheel to move up and down each page.
The Squadron summary page acts as a narrative site map, introducing the site pages in context, again with live links.
Printing the site
Whoa! Before you start, to print the whole site will take a ream of A4 paper and that’s printing on both sides.
Before you print, best to do a Print Preview. If neccessary, check Page Setup in your browser and either select Shrink to fit or set page margins to the smallest allowable. You might like to try printing 2-up at least, and both sides if your printer set-up allows it. Through your browser, check your Print/Printer/Properties options. For some of the site pages, the count of printed pages will be 30, 40, 50 or more.
At any update, current pages are likely to be revised and new pages added. See the Site Updates page for details.
Conditions of use
You may not copy, reproduce, distribute or re-post images from this website.
Stripping and reposting images from websites like this without asking, without attribution, without a link to the source, and without their carefully developed captions is bad practice. It is slipshod, dishonest and an insult: to the men, to the intelligence of readers, and to future researchers.
To deter image theft and to leave plenty of room for growth, there are no thumbnail links to higher quality pictures. If you need higher resolution copies of photographs from this site, contact me.
Image sources are invariably acknowledged on this site. Some photographs came with brief captions or descriptions and these are indicated in the text. In the majority of cases, the captions are my own original work, as are the extended comments.
The images come from a variety of sources varying greatly in quality, whether original prints and negatives, 60 year-old half-tone newsprint and photogravure, copy negatives and prints, photocopies from laser and inkjet prints, or from scans of every level of quality.
With few exceptions, they are reproduced as near as practicable to their original state: monochrome, in their entirety (ie full-frame), near original size and with little or no enhancement. Most of the images are in JPEG (.jpg) format, at 72ppi and at JPEG “high” quality. This way, pages load with reasonable speed and print at reasonable quality, however, individual images will not enlarge or print well.
Error 404 Page not found
Error 403 Forbidden: Access is denied
That’ll likely be me, doing some site maintenance. Please try later. The site may go off-line for a time when I’m running an update. Check back in half an hour or so. Very occasionally, the site will be off-line for a longer time while I test something.
You may need to click your browser’s Refresh or Reload button when first re-visiting after an update. Scheduled dates are shown on the Site updates page.
Error 500 Internal server error
Error 503 Service unavailable
That’ll be my host service, having a temporary technical fault. Please try later.
Malware & viruses
- Depending on your browser and its settings, if you’ve chosen to have Activex Filtering 'on', warnings that "Some content is filtered" while viewing my site should be a sign that something's not right (though the culprit should be blocked)
- Sadly, malware can lurk anywhere these days. The best protection is to make sure your PC is always fully up-to-date, with automatic updates to your system, your browser and associated software, protected by appropriate privacy and security settings and regular scans with good, up-to-date anti-virus/anti-malware.
All email spam, without exception, is reported to the Australian Communications and Media Authority by forwarding the offending email as an attachment to the Spam Intelligence Database at firstname.lastname@example.org.
If the email attempts to fudge or spoof a real organisation as sender, the offending email is also forwarded to that organisation’s fraud, abuse or report spam address. Readers in other countries may find their own agencies of assistance.
The life-span of personal, non-commercial websites can be quite short, often only a handful of years. Good aviation and military history sites, with rich and unique content, may pass into oblivion when the site owner can no longer maintain them.
Anyone who has gone to the effort of creating and maintaining a well-researched presentation of unique, sound content could assist future researchers by contacting their own national web archiving programme to propose their site for preservation. The International Internet Preservation Consortium offers a comprehensive summary of national programmes, here: http://netpreserve.org/resources/member-archives
Australian national web archive
PANDORA, the web archive programme of the National Library of Australia and partners, is currently a selective archive of Australian websites. Webmasters and other interested parties may nominate Australian sites for inclusion in the archive.
Preservation of this website and future access are both assured, for the short term and the long term, with independent archive and back up sets.
- On-line, PANDORA takes a copy of the whole 211 Squadron site once a year, on 6 August
- The complete set of site copies from May 2002 is easily found, by clicking the PANDORA link on the Home page, through the National Library's TROVE and on-line catalogue, directly from the PANDORA menu, or by the persisent URL for the complete archive set: http://nla.gov.au/nla.arc-24825.
- The Persisent URL reference explains how to extract related URLs for any one set, or any one page, via the Citation Service.
- Off-line, this site is backed up monthly, to a separate drive and to a separate PC, kept out of the house.
National legal deposit legislation was amended to include digital publication in June 2015. The NLA began collecting on-line materials in 2016, providing an eDeposit service for publishers of books and journals. PANDORA continues as the Australian website depository, by nomination or invitation.
Other web archives
The National Library of NZ runs their national web archiving programme. Content is searchable through the NZNL on-line catalogue. While the archive is selective, nominations are welcomed:
In the UK, the British Library’s UK Web Archive caters for personal sites, sites of private organisations, and the like. From April 2013, the Web Archive began automatically gathering all sites under the .uk domain or published in the UK. The Archive particularly invites nominations from Webmasters (or interested parties) for UK sites with addresses that don’t use .uk in their name. Details: http://www.webarchive.org.uk/ukwa/info/nominate.
UK Government sites are covered by The National Archives at http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/webarchive/
The Internet Archive (also known as the Wayback Machine) offers a hands-off but very imperfect alternative. Although frequent and notionally global, copies may be quite incomplete (often lacking images and/or pages in whole or in part).
More problematically, to find a lost site there are no simple title or keyword search options, nor does the archive respond well to Google searches. Any archived copy can only be found by entering the previous URL address/es of the site while it did exist. This site, for example, had four different addresses from 2001 to 2013.
Over the last several years, private instances of self-proclaimed “archives” have begun to arise. Consisting of selective copies of other’s sites or site pages, these efforts are, essentially, unauthorised content duplicators masquerading as archives but without the knowledge, permission or consent of original site owners.
Apart from being a deliberate breach of copyright, these so-called archives needlessly consume site band-width, merely to partially duplicate content (regardless of any true, authorised, complete archival instances). In the long term, the result will be multiple incomplete copies and effectively random links to outdated content.
www.211squadron.org © D Clark & others 2017
Site created 15 Apr 2001, last updated 31 Jul 2017. Page created 28 Oct 2001, last updated 31 Jul 2016
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